Official Name Federative Republic of Brazil
Total area 8,514,877 sq km
Population 201,009,622 (July 2013 est.)
Capital City Brasília



Brazil gained its independence in 1822, continuing a monarchy-based government until the abolition of slavery in 1888, and the consequent declaration of a republic by the military in 1889.
As the largest and most heavily populated country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military government peaceably relinquished power to civilian rulers. Brazil remains in the pursuit of industrial and agricultural growth and development. Taking advantage of vast natural resources and a large labor pool, Brazil is currently a leading economic power in South America and a regional leader, one of the first in the region to begin an economic recovery.
Highly unequal income distribution and crime are persistent problems.


Brazil’s economy outweighs that of all other South American countries with its vast and well-developed agricultural, manufacturing, mining, and service sectors. Its presence is significantly expanding in world markets.
Following strong growth in 2007 and 2008, the onset of the global financial crisis hit Brazil in 2008. However, Brazil was one of the first emerging markets to begin a revival. In 2010, consumer and investor confidence recovered and GDP growth reached the highest growth rate in the past 25 years.
Unemployment is at a significant low point, and Brazil’s high level of income inequality has decreased for the last 14 years. Brazil’s traditionally high interest rates have made it an attractive destination for foreign investors.


The Brazilian public health system is managed and delivered by all levels of government. While public health services are universal and offered to all Brazilian citizens for free, 45.5 million Brazilians have a private health plan.
According to the Brazilian Government, the most serious health problems are childhood mortality, motherhood mortality, mortality by non-transmissible illness and mortality caused by external sources.

Major infectious diseases:
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

Malaria Status

In 2002, Brazil accounted for 40% of malaria cases in the Americas. The burden is particularly high in Amazon region, with almost 99% of these cases concentrated there. Around 75% of cases are a result of Plasmodium vivax infection, while the remainder of cases are due to infections with P. falciparum, the more acute and dangerous species of malaria.
Owing to the repeated bouts of fever, anaemia, respiratory distress and malnutrition associated with malaria, hundreds of thousands of days in time, capability and potential that are lost every year. Studies have also shown that malaria can have adverse effects on children’s cognitive ability. Severe cases lose it is not just, but lives.
As a consequence of this loss of life and productivity, this tiny parasite traps families and communities in an endless cycle of poverty – hindering social and economic development.
The National Malaria Control Programme endorses prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of malaria, along with the application of other aspects of the Global Malaria Control Strategy. With the application of operational control efforts, the recent years have seen a major reduction in the number of people suffering from malaria.
However, the burden remains devastating. Existing effective interventions in controlling malaria has restricted exposure due to a lack of resources, little information to direct activities, as well as practical and organisational difficulties at local level. The chief difficulty facing malaria control is the lack of effective tools to treat it, making current solutions insufficient, especially for Plasmodium vivax, the species responsible for 87% of malaria cases in Brazil: it can lie dormant for weeks, even years, in a patient’s liver, to appear again and again without warning, each relapse leading to the feverish symptoms of malaria.
In addition, vector species are developing resistance to existing medicines and insecticides. The development of novel medicines to treat relapsing malaria is a curative answer for malaria in Brazil. However, finding the solution for inadequate malaria prevention seems to be a large problem due to the above mentioned factors.

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