South Sudan

Official Name Republic of South Sudan, previously known as Southern Sudan
Total area 644,329 sq km
Population 11,090,104 (July 2013 est.)
Capital City Juba



After Sudan’s independence in 1956, two protracted periods of conflict took place over the general exclusion of southerners in the political system, the second period lasting from 1983 to 2005, in which possibly over 2 million people died due to starvation and drought. After peace talks, a Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed in 2005. According to this agreement, the south was allowed autonomy for a period of six years, which was to be followed by a referendum on final status. The referendum was held in January 2011, with the result that 98% voted for secession.
On 9 July 2011, South Sudan gained independence. It has since struggled with good governance, nation building, and attempting to control rebel militia groups functioning within the country.


Due to decades of civil war with Sudan, the infrastructure and industry of South Sudan, a land-locked country, are severely underdeveloped. While a majority of South Sudan’s population relies on subsistence agriculture, poverty is


Markets are not well structured and organized, leading to missing price signals, and property rights are uncertain. South Sudan’s infrastructure consists of only 60 km of paved roads.
Expensive diesel generators are used to produce electricity, and running water is scarce. In addition, the government spends large sums of money to maintain a big army.
Regardless of these drawbacks, South Sudan is in possession of ample natural resources and includes some of the richest agricultural lands in Africa.
It produces almost three-quarters of former Sudan’s total oil output, approximately half a million barrels per day. Ninety eight percent of South Sudan’s revenues are resultant of oil export.
Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan, with a decline in GDP of over 50%.


Currently, South Sudan is known to have some of the worst health indicators in the world.
It has the highest maternal mortality rate in the world, at 2,053.9 per 100,000 live births, and the infant mortality rate (under five years of age) is 135.3 per 1,000. In 2004, only three surgeons served southern Sudan, with three proper hospitals, and in some areas there was just one doctor for every 500,000 people.
Major infectious diseases:
Food or water borne disease: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vector borne disease: malaria, dengue fever, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis

Malaria Status

Malaria is one of the chief deadly diseases in South Sudan, seriously affecting the socio-economic status of its population. South Sudan’s Ministry of Health, alongside international partners, has been applying sustained preventive methods to control the disease.
In the face of limited health facilities and resources, a poor health information system, and despite the support given by international partners such as the WHO, UNICEF and USAID in the fight against malaria, the Government of South Sudan has admitted that further commitment is required.
In a statement given by the deputy health minister, concerns were expressed that many people in South Sudan underestimate the threat of malaria, citing that while sleeping nets were being distributed across the country as preventive measure, receivers in some communities use the nets for fishing, rather than the prevention of mosquito bites.

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