Cameroon

Official Name Republic of Cameroon
Total area 475,440 sq km
Population 20,549,221 (July 2013 est.)
Capital City Yaoundé

Map

Background

French Cameroon became independent in 1960 as the Republic of Cameroon. The following year the southern portion of neighboring British Cameroon voted to merge with the new country to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon.

Compared with other African countries, Cameroonhas generally enjoyed political and social stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as large petroleum and timber industries. Nevertheless, a large number of Cameroonians live in poverty as subsistence farmers.

Economy

Due to its modest oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa.
It faces many of the serious difficulties that challenge other underdeveloped countries, such as stagnant revenue, an inequitable distribution of income, and a largely unfavorable climate for business enterprise.
Subsidies for electricity, food, and fuel have strained the budget. Cameroon recently began several large infrastructure projects, including a deep sea port, an electricity generating plant powered by natural gas, as well as several hydroelectric dams. Cameroon must attract more investment to improve its inadequate infrastructure, however, its business environment serves as a hindranceto foreign investment.

Health

Health care in Cameroon generally suffers from low quality. Outside the major cities, facilities are often dirty and poorly equipped, and the average life expectancy is estimated to be 54.71 years, which ranks among the lowest in the world.
Common endemic diseases in the country include dengue fever, filariasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, meningitis, schistosomiasis, and sleeping sickness.Traditional healers remain a popular alternative to Western medicine.

Major infectious diseases:
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
Water contact disease:schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis

Malaria Status

Malaria is predominant in the Bénoué River Valley, the basin of Lake Chad, the coastal region, and the forests of southern Cameroon.
Throughout the year, malaria is endemic in nearly the whole country, with a transmission period lasting from 7 – 12 months. Conversely, in the north and hilly regions in western Cameroon, transmission is lower and lasts only 1- 3 months.
In Cameroon, malaria remains the leading source of morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable groups: pregnant women and children below 5 years of age. In addition, a large percentage of the adult population is affected.
Cameroon’s health system statistics indicate that malaria is responsible for up to 50% morbidity among children below 5 years of age, 30% of hospitalizations and over 40% of medical consultations.
According to WHO,in reports published in 2011, deaths due to malaria in Cameroon reached 23,179.

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